08 February 2024

Wildcards cannot be used as the first character. - Filtering Dynamic Distro Groups by domain

 Ran into this annoying one.

The client asked me to create dynamic distribution groups and filter by domain. They have several companies under their umbrella.

So I created the first group. We'll call it SamusDental. 

$filter = "(WindowsLiveID -eq '*@samusdental.com')"

$get-recipient -identity "All Users - SamusDental" -RecipientFilter $filter

Name RecipientType
Annie.Lemon UserMailbox
Marcus.Lime UserMailbox
Stephanie.Cherry UserMailbox
JoAnne.Orange UserMailbox

Good.. Results. Let's set that as the DDG.

set-dynamicdistributiongroup -identity "All Users - SamusDental" -recipientfilter $filter

Write-ErrorMessage : |Microsoft.Exchange.Management.Tasks.RecipientTaskException|Wildcards cannot be used as the first character. Please revise the filter criteria.

Wut.. But it just worked in the get-recipient..

So I ran it several more times, testing @*samusdental.com.. no. *samusdental.com.. no. @samusdental.com.. no.

Nothing worked. If I set up the filter without the wildcard, no results were pulled, but if I set it up WITH the wildcard, and it pulled results, the set-ddg would not take the filter.

Finally found the solution:

$filter = "(RecipientTypeDetails -eq 'UserMailbox') -and (WindowsLiveID -eq '*@samusdental.com')"

For some reason having the RecipientTypeDetails property first, and then the wildcard on the domain second, worked fine.

Thanks, Microsoft.


12 September 2023

Unless the government fears the people, it will abuse the people

 I do not think it possible to have moral and wise people running the government long term, without certain safeguards. 

Some of these people are absolute imbiciles.

[Hank Johnson - Will Guam tip over?]

New politicians spend the first half of their term being told by old guard the way things really work, as their youthful exuberance and hope to make an impact are destroyed. 

Trump found this out, as I am sure have many other fresh politicians. His lofty goals and promises to build his wall, to drain the swamp, to release the Kennedy assassination documents.. all this ended upon his first briefing on how things actually work, with what he could and couldn't do. 

His appointments for advisors were tainted by enemies he didnt know he had. He trusted people, and they corrupted that trust, his son-in-law included.

Most people vote emotionally. Liberals vote for representation, or some other arbitrary descriptor, such as, "I always vote against the incumbant," one woman told me. 

Politicians are so out of touch with huge swaths of the country. 

i.e. the "flyover states". 

They pass legislation that doesnt make sense for anyone outside their cities, and most times not even for them.

i.e. minimum wage

....  gun control

....  rent control

....  taxation

....  water controls

At the onset, you may have people like George Washington that want the best for the country, who lay down power when it is no longer necessary. 

But over time, the grifters will come. The power brokers, the lobbyists, the influencers that are not altruistic. Corrupt people in power will work to retain their power and/or expand it.

I heard a clip from Lotus Eaters where they were playing a clip from TimCast IRL with Jackson Hinkle, a Maga Communist that said the value of Communism is, "Orienting government and the economy for the public good."

[Clip from Lotus Eaters]

[whole interview on TimCast IRL]

The issue is that our system, at the outset, was set up for this, but has been altered, diluted, reshaped, into it's present form where corruption can take over and the government no longer works for the people, but for themselves, stripping the value from the people and giving it to their friends, allies, and contacts to further enrich themselves. 

Further, there is no accountability. The government investigates itself. The government decides whether to prosecute itself, and which parts are prosecuted. The government can choose to cut out the portions that it doesnt like and ignore the parts it does. 

How many Senate Review meetings do we see where senators throw zingers at those they've dragged before them, and yet still do nothing. Sound bites that they can use in their next campaign for re-election.

A book cover of the book Lone Star Planet

I read a science fiction book called Lone Star Planet [Piper & McGuire, 1958] about people from Texas that settled a planet. They had giant animals they called "supercows" that were too large to wrangle with horses, they had to use tanks. Everyone had guns. 

A politician that made promises and then voted against the interests of his constituency was shot on the steps of the state house. The perpetrator surrendered, was relieved of his guns and taken into custody. He appeared before a judge that afternoon. The judge heard the case - very short - took a recess to discuss with the associate judges, and proclaimed verdict:

"You all know," he continued, addressing the entire assemblage, "the reason for which this young hero cut down that monster of political iniquity, S. Austin Maverick. On the very morning of his justly-merited death, Austin Maverick, using the powers of his political influence, rammed through the Finance and Revenue Committee a bill entitled 'An Act for the Taxing of Personal Incomes, and for the Levying of a Withholding Tax.' Fellow citizens, words fail me to express my horror of this diabolic proposition, this proposed instrument of tyrannical extortion, borrowed from the Dark Ages of the Twentieth Century! Why, if this young nobleman had not taken his blade in hand, I'd have killed the sonofabitch, myself!" 

He leaned forward, extending the belt and holsters to the defendant.

"I therefore restore to you your weapons, taken from you when, in compliance with the law, you were formally arrested. Buckle them on, and, assuming your weapons again, go forth from this court a free man, Wilbur Whately. 

"And take with you that machete with which you vindicated the liberties and rights of all New Texans. Bear it reverently to your home, hang it among your lares and penates, cherish it, and dying, mention it within your will, bequeathing it as a rich legacy unto your issue! 

"Court adjourned; next session 0900 tomorrow. For Chrissake, let's get out of here before the barbecue's over!" 

[Lone Star Planet, Piper & McGuire, Chapter 5]

When this system collapses, and it will, will the new phoenix that rises from the ashes seek public good, or seek to retain it's new found power? Will the Soroses come with shiny temptation? Will drugs, porn, and video games be used to placate the masses, the modern day bread and circuses? 

Or will we ensure that the power remains in the hands of the people, and the political class cannot, by hiding political pet projects inside 5000 page bills and depositing them four hours before the vote, take advantage? 

We have to pass the bill so that you can find out what is in it - Nancy Pelosi

[Link to what is in the 1.7Trillion dollar spending package]

Unless the government fears the people, it will abuse the people.


27 July 2023

SharePoint Migration Error 0x0207000B

Message PendingAction ExceptionId
Task Validation Failed. ACTION_STOP 0x0207000B

I attempted to upload six folders from a client's file server to OneDrive using the SharePoint Migration tool. It failed with the above error on each folder. I had done a csv upload of the folder list.

I did a thorough search online, and Microsoft's error list doesn't even include it.

After reviewing all my settings, I discovered that I had reversed the slash in the pathing. 


Since it is a web path, need forward slashes.


An easy fix, but one that isn't documented.


11 March 2023

Preparing for Conference

As conference approaches, we are encouraged to prepare to hear the messages of the Lord, and some might ask, ‘How do I do that?’

One day last year my daughter, Nora, saw me snap my fingers at the dog. This is my signal to Atticus to move out of my way, whether it’s from my spot on the couch, my spot on the bed, or just standing in my path as I walk.

Later she came to me and asked how to do it, so I showed her the basics of pushing her thumb and middle finger together, letting the middle finger slip from her thumb and slap against the meat of the palm. She spent several weeks practicing, reporting her progress to me, until she could easily snap her fingers with an audible click.

A couple weeks ago she heard someone on a TV show whistle, and she has been practicing this as well. She purses up her lips and breathes rapidly, and can often produce a whistle in both directions, like this: <whistle>. I love seeing her successes as she builds her confidence.

We got them little bikes with no pedals when they were two or three, and they love riding them all over. This practice has prepared their balance so when we got them pedal bikes, it wasn’t long before Nora was ready to try with the training wheels off. We got them new bikes for Christmas and she didn’t want to have anything to do with the training wheels from day one.

They practice coloring, painting, counting, riding their bikes, singing, and many other skills.

I think this simple example that Nora and Clara provide is an excellent way to prepare for conference: Practice.

We practice hearing the messages of the Lord by listening so we easily recognize those things. Listen to talks from the last General Conference. Listen to devotionals. Listen to the choir and uplifting music. Listen to or read the scriptures. Listen to older talks that may have been before your time, or when you were younger. Practice recognizing the theme of the talk, and practice applying the message to your life.

The truths that were spoken by President Hinkley, President Kimball, or Elder McConkie, are just as true today as they were in the 1980’s, 1970’s, and older.

We can also turn off other media that doesn’t invite the spirit. News, politics, social media. Each of these things is not necessarily bad, but is often a mix of positive and negative, and in the case of news and politics, rarely contains uplifting messages.

As Don Henley pointed out in the 1982 song, “Dirty Laundry”:

...The bubble-headed bleached blonde comes on at five
she can tell you ‘bout the plane crash with a gleam in her eye.
It’s interesting when people die
Give us dirty laundry.

We can do “the innuendo”, we can dance and sing
When it’s said and done we haven’t told you a thing
We all know that crap is king
Give us dirty laundry!

Taking a media fast and focusing on spiritual and uplifting content leading up to conference will help to cleanse our minds of the often negative messages and influences so we can better focus on hearing the spirit.

President and Sister Nelson have given the youth a challenge of taking a seven day social media fast.

Quote: 'President Nelson shared the story of a young man who had to give up his smartphone for a bit. At first, he panicked. (Can you relate?) But then, he was grateful. He felt “free for the first time in a long time” and loved being “free from the fake life that social media creates” and had much more time and energy to be outside, serve others, listen in church, and prepare for his mission. And he was so much happier.'

Social media can certainly be a wonderful tool to connect with others and share goodness, but if you’re paying more attention to your Instagram feed or favorite YouTube videos than to the Spirit, it’s a problem.

“[The] downside of social media is that it creates a false reality,” President Nelson said. “Everyone posts their most fun, adventurous, and exciting pictures, which create the erroneous impression that everyone except you is leading a fun, adventurous, and exciting life. Much of what appears in your various social media feeds is distorted, if not fake.”

End Quote

Author Sheridan Voysey, in his article, Four Reasons to Try a Social Media Fast, talks about the benefits he received doing a month-long social media fast. He found he had more energy, less distraction, more focus, more peace, more contentment, and taken back precious time. His attention and memory increase. he has less annoyance and disappointment.

As with all things in life, social media should be taken in moderation.

While I was in college, I needed an easy class to fill a credit requirement. I looked through the catalog and picked one called, “Learning to Learn”. This was probably the most useful class that I took in college. I sure don’t remember any calculus. I’m not an accountant, and I’m not critiquing Jazz festivals. But the lessons I learned in this class have helped me in many other things in life.

One of the most important principles is, if you want to learn, you have to pay attention. I know, easier said than done, but paying attention comes from one major component: Interest.

If we are interested in the subject, we are more likely to pay attention.

Think about your favorite subject. This could be baseball, cars, Pokemon, animals, Egyptian archaeology, whatever. You know about this subject because it interests you. You know about this subject because when you read about it, or watch a YouTube video or lecture about it, your interest keeps your attention.

The same way, when we aren’t interested in a subject, we have a harder time paying attention.

One way we can increase our interest in conference is to have some questions that we would like answered. These answers may be something you hear directly, or they may be a prompting during a particularly spiritual talk. Listening for answers to questions helps to focus your mind so you are able to pay attention.

Other ways to pay attention is to play Conference Bingo. LDSBookstore.com has free conference packets that include four bingo cards, or there are numerous ones online that can be downloaded and printed. Listening carefully for the words, concepts, or phrases on your bingo card are a great way to pay attention.

We also find it easier to be interested and pay attention when we remove distractions. Get household chores done in the days or hours before so you can focus on the listening. Don’t play Candy Crush or other mobile games. Use your phone for notes, or sending “Wow, did you hear that?!” to family when a great message strikes home.

Being well rested so we aren’t dozing off during conference is also important. Go to bed at a reasonable hour and eat a healthy breakfast that will give you the energy to last all the way through.

Another way we prepare in our family is by having tradition. Contrary to my last point of eating a healthy breakfast, Saturday we have snacks. There is a bowl of M&Ms and a bowl of Skittles, mandarin oranges, trail mix, etc.

Sunday, Stephanie makes German Pancakes for breakfast. So like Christmas, General Conference is a family holiday, and this brings us into the spirit of conference and helps to put us in that frame of mind.

So as General Conference approaches, let us practice hearing the messages of the Lord, just as Nora practices her finger snaps, her whistles, and her artwork, and Clara practices her singing, dancing, and her own art.

Let us have reason to pay attention, and let us make these things a tradition to pass on, and I say these things in the name of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ,



23 August 2022

Is tithing still a commandment?

10 Bring ye all the atithes into the storehouse, that there may be bmeat in mine house, and cprove me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I will not dopen you the ewindows of heaven, and pour you out a fblessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it. --Malachi 3:10

In our family group chat my sister-in-law, Melanie, posed a question: Is the law of tithing about ten percent of gross income?

I thought that was a fair question and pondered it as the family discussed, mostly because I was at work and couldnt devote the time to it that it deserved.

I looked up the relevant verses so I had a solid foundation for my response:

The Old Testament

30 And all the atithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the Lord’s: it is holy unto the Lord.

31 And if a man will at all redeem ought of his tithes, he shall add thereto the fifth part thereof.

32 And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passeth under the arod, the tenth shall be holy unto the Lord--Leviticus 27:30-32

Here we read that the law was the tenth animal to pass under the rod as the herdsman was counting out the new cattle (cattle being whatever animal the herdsman raised). 

So if I had a hundred head of sheep, goats, mules, whatever, and the new ones born that season are my increase, and i count them, every tenth goes to the Lord. This is a law of the tithe, gross increase.

And not just for herdsmen:

22 Thou shalt truly atithe all the increase of thy seed, that the field bringeth forth year by year. --Deuteronomy 14:22

Again, the "increase" is what is added to your holdings that year.

Melanie says that some people she knows have decided the increase is what is left over after paying their bills, and pay 10% on that. But that isn't what the scriptures say. It is very clear pay 10% gross, if you take 2 seconds to think about it. 

No where in the Bible does it say to sell the sheep required to cover the expenses on your farm, pay your ranch hands, and the water carriers, and what's left over, return 10% to the Lord. It says count the increase of your grain and your animals, and one-tenth is the Lord's.

The New Testament

Some say Jesus broke the old laws when he came, but that isn't what Jesus says:

17 ¶ Think not that I am come to adestroy the blaw, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.

18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the alaw, till all be bfulfilled--Matthew 5:17-18

He clearly says nothing will change from the law until ALL is fulfilled. So 10% is still the rule.

Doctrine & Covenants 119

Melanie's brother, Chris, brought up in D&C 119 where it says "one-tenth of all their interest annually." From this he thought it meant not gross wages.

Let's look at the whole verse:

And after that, those who have thus been atithed shall pay one-tenth of all their interest annually; and this shall be a standing law unto them forever, for my holy priesthood, saith the Lord. --D&C 119:4

I disagree that this does not refer to gross wages. I don't think this is a change in the law of tithing at all, but a return to it. 

For a time, the Saints were required to give all that they could to the church to help build it up. People were giving their life savings, selling land, herds, whatever they could because they believed in the Book of Mormon and that Joseph Smith was the Prophet of God in the latter days.

D&C 119 is short, let's look at the section up to verse 4 to get a greater context:

Verily, thus saith the Lord, I require all their asurplus property to be put into the hands of the bishop of my church in Zion,

For the building of mine ahouse, and for the laying of the foundation of Zion and for the priesthood, and for the debts of the Presidency of my Church.

And this shall be the beginning of the atithing of my people.

And after that, those who have thus been atithed shall pay one-tenth of all their interest annually; and this shall be a standing law unto them forever, for my holy priesthood, saith the Lord.

So "after that" refers to after "all their surplus property", then return to 10% of their "interest annually".

My understanding of interest in this context is thus:

"interest is on top of principle. so if what i own is principle, then anything added unto it would be interest. each year i add to my holdings, in the form of income, and pay tithe on my increase."

I find that to be pretty straightforward, and upholds the law as written in the Bible.

Tithing is a commitment to the Lord, not the church

When I was baptized I asked the bishop if I was supposed to pay 10% of gross or net. He told me that most pay gross, but it is a commitment to the Lord, so I should do what I feel is right. 

In our conversation, Melanie posed several challenges:

Melanie: "I’ve always paid 10% gross. But the point is more philosophical. Is this something we do out of tradition? Are we missing the mark? Are we paying twice as much as we need to pay and thereby putting ourselves in more financial stress than we need to be in? Because, as we discussed, paying extra tithing does not equal extra blessings from obeying that law."

To which I replied:

If you live within your means, tithing should be part of that means and not something that endangers your lifestyle. And you paying extra may not afford you more blessings, but what about those that the tithing funds go to help?
are they not blessed by your charity?
do you pay tithing only to get a blessing?

Melanie: We’ve always paid tithing first. Still do. 

When we feel like we have extra, we give a bigger fast offering. Or we have given people of our excess who are in need. I feel like those donation helps people more than my tithing, which goes in the general church coffers and doesn’t make a dent. 

But let’s say you believed that you were supposed to pay 20% your whole life. Sometimes you could afford it more than others. But when economy went to crap it became harder to pay the bills and buy the groceries. Because, you know, you pay the tithing first it’s the other things you don’t have money for. But then you learn that you’re only supposed to pay 10%. Would you refuse to consider paying less?

Me: if i had it built into my lifestyle to pay 20%, i would continue paying 20%. if things got tight i would look at my spending on luxuries where I could reduce. like i'd turn off netflix, amazon, and disney. i'd make sure all spotify and other things were off. i'd encourage my family to eat out less and have more at home meals. i would find places in my life where i could cut back a little so i still felt i was doing the right thing in paying my tithing, whatever amount that was.

i dont pay tithing because it's a bill. i pay tithing because it's what the Lord asked of us. i dont calculate how much and decide God has been cheating me because i've been paying more than i "should".

Melanie: I pay tithing because it’s a commandment, not because it’s a bill. But maybe when we struggle and pray to find out ways to cut enough costs to get by without going negative each month, maybe God looks down at us and is like, “well, you could stop paying that ridiculous amount of tithing. Then you could afford your basic groceries.” Because it is about obedience. It’s not about paying your way into a more righteous status. The amount extra you pay does not translate to a higher law. You know?

Me: i'm still not sure what your end goal is in this conversation. if you dont want to pay as much tithing, pay less tithing. it's a personal commitment to the Lord. The church gives you a tithing settlement and asks you if you're paying a full tithe. they dont look at your W2s..

Each year we in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints have what we call 'tithing settlement' where the bishop provides a receipt of all tithing paid in the year and asks if you are a full tithe payer. 

There is no accountant waiting in the wings to check your W2s, 1099s, tax returns, etc. Just a simple statement of donation, and a single question.

You can handle that however you feel is right. 

But the actual law is 10% gross income.


26 July 2022

Anna Sunflower & Anna's Reply

This morning my daughter, Clara, was singing a song that she made up. She's four, so her song is simple, and she has the ability to stay mostly on key when she sings. I think she has a real talent for it.

My wife's family is very musically talented. We both sing, Stephanie Grace plays piano, Anna plays flute and sings beautifully, Matt plays trombone and had a very deep bass voice, Stephanie's brothers and sisters all sing, play instruments, and a couple play a lot... like A LOT... of instruments. David and Jason are always purchasing a new interesting instrument to learn.

Stephanie Grace has this amazing skill to sit at a piano and just play something incredible. She calls it a party trick and shrugs it off like it's nothing, but I find it absolutely fascinating, having to work so hard to create any music myself.

Back in 2014, when Anna was 10, Stephanie Grace wrote and recorded a song for her titled Anna Sunflower. I've downloaded it from fb and post it here:

It's sweet and cute, and Anna is the one filming. Unfortunately it cuts off at the end, so we miss the last few do-do-da-ta-dee-da's, but you get the picture.

A couple years ago, Anna was working on her own songs, and her first one (no music yet) is a response to her mother.

I love the messaging in this set of songs. In Stephanie Grace's song, Anna is young, she's innocent, she's a delight. She has very little experience in the world. 

In Anna's response, she's a teenager, she's kind of a brat, she's made some mistakes and suffered bouts of depression, not the childlike innocence from when she was 10. The world and it's problems are a little more real.

She recognizes the vision her mother had for her and still wants for her, and tries to change her path to match it, longing for the days of easy happiness in childhood.

These songs, wonderful on their own, take on a clearer meaning when heard back to back.

Anna sang this for me one morning while I was driving her to Seminary. 

Still brings a tear to my eye. 


10 July 2022

Leveling up in Life

I was walking the track around the ballfield one day after work with a couple friends, Mark and Lyle. 

Lyle was a barrel chested tank of a man, and Mark was a short and round, and he was having trouble keeping up with Lyle and me. 

Mark made the comment, "When does this get any easier?" 

To which Lyle replied, "It doesn’t. You just get to where you handle it better."

I always thought that was a very profound statement that can be applied to a lot more than just exercise.

Our bodies are meant for work. In Genesis 3:19 God tells Adam, 

'In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground;..'

When we lift heavy things, our bodies learn to adapt and build stronger muscles so they can handle the lifting of those heavy things. When we walk long distances, our bodies build lean muscles that are more full of energy and can better handle the long walks. 

But the body isn't the only thing that God gave us that adapts to it's challenges.

Our minds, our emotions, and our spirit are all strengthened when we "lift heavy things" for each of them.

When a student studies, their brain carves new grooves, pathways that store the knowledge. When they apply that knowledge, those pathways are reinforced and a stronger connection is made to that knowledge.

The same applies to our spiritual muscles. When we read our scriptures, pray, participate in our Sunday School, ponder the teachings of the gospel, and, as Nephi said, "feast upon the words of Christ," we build those spiritual muscles that will support us during challenges.

We must be challenged

In the movie The Matrix, The Architect is telling Neo about how this is not the first iteration of the Matrix, but the sixth. 

"The first matrix I designed," he says, "was quite naturally perfect. It was a work of art; flawless, sublime, and triumph equaled only by it's monumental failure."

He is telling Neo that the first matrix, in it's "perfection" provided mankind with all their needs. Everyone could be happy. 

But instead, it failed. And while the Architect does not say why it failed, we can look at a real world experiment to see what may have happened.

In the 1960s, a behavioral researcher named John Calhoun created the "Mouse Utopia" experiment. Calhoun created several habitats for mice to observe overcrowding in a perfect world.

He provided the mice with limitless food, and secluded rodent condos on several levels, and no natural predators. Because food and space was so plentiful, they expanded their population quickly. 

At the peak population, most mice spent every living second in the company of hundreds of other mice. They gathered in the main squares, waiting to be fed and occasionally attacking each other. Few females carried pregnancies to term, and the ones that did seemed to simply forget about their babies. They'd move half their litter away from danger and forget the rest. Sometimes they'd drop and abandon a baby while they were carrying it.

The few secluded spaces housed a population Calhoun called, "the beautiful ones." Generally guarded by one male, the females—and few males—inside the space didn't breed or fight or do anything but eat and groom and sleep. When the population started declining the beautiful ones were spared from violence and death, but had completely lost touch with social behaviors, including [mating] or caring for their young.

Mouse Utopia, John Calhoun

The mice and rats had no challenges, and basically went insane. I think the Architect meant the same thing about his first 'perfect' matrix.

God, in contrast, did not create a perfect world where all our needs were to be met. In fact, if you remember from what was revealed of the war in heaven, that was Satan's plan: 

In Moses, chapter four, verse 1: 

Behold, here am I, send me, I will be thy son, and I will redeem all mankind, that one soul shall not be lost, and surely I will do it; wherefore give me thine honor.

But just like in the Matrix, God knew the only way it would not be "a monumental failure" was that man had to be given choice, and with that choice the opportunity to make poor choices that come with consequences.

But it is in those consequences that we have the opportunity to grow stronger, in whichever area of life the challenge lies. 

In James, Chapter one, verses two through four: 

My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience. But let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing.

It is never the case that we are strengthened by avoiding challenges. When we avoid doing difficult things, our life area atrophies, no different than if we lay in bed all day, never lifting a finger. If our muscles are never used, the body will not keep them up. The same is true for our mind, and our spirit. 

I'm not sure if you've heard his lectures on YouTube, but Dr. Jordan Peterson gives great advice. One of the things he often says to those who don’t know what to do with their lives, is this: "Pick up the heaviest load you can, and carry it."

Dr. Peterson is specifically talking about seeking responsibility. Not just about moving furniture, or bringing in the box of books from the moving van, but pick up the heaviest burden you can, and take responsibility for it. It is in this that you will find meaning.

So in that, our challenges do not just build our mind, body, and spirit for no reason, but they build those things that we will be able to handle more difficult challenges.

all these things shall give thee experience, and shall be for thy good

I play video games in my spare time with David and Matt. We like role playing games, like World of Warcraft, Final Fantasy, and Divinity. One thing these games all have in common is, as you complete challenges, you gain experience and 'level up'.

The other night David and I were playing Divinity, and we were having a heck of a time with a fight. The opponents were tough, and the terrain was not in our favor. After a few tries we thought it would be a good idea to go out and look for other challenges that were more appropriate to our skills, increase our abilities, and then try again. 

We fought other battles. We gained new equipment and abilities. I think one character even leveled up. We formed new strategies, and we went back to that fight and won.

Yes, this is just a game, but our story in that game could not progress unless we defeated that enemy. And it was seeking out other challenges and experiences, and formulating a new plan that allowed us to overcome, which provided us with even more experience and equipment, to prepare us for challenges that were coming later.

In Doctrine & Covenants 122, Joseph is in Liberty Jail. He cries out about the unfairness of it all, asking why the Lord would allow this to happen to his chosen people. And the Lord gave him an answer:

5 If thou art called to pass through tribulation; if thou art in perils among false brethren; if thou art in perils among robbers; if thou art in perils by land or by sea;

6 If thou art accused with all manner of false accusations; if thine enemies fall upon thee; if they tear thee from the society of thy father and mother and brethren and sisters; and if with a drawn sword thine enemies tear thee from the bosom of thy wife, and of thine offspring, and thine elder son, although but six years of age, shall cling to thy garments, and shall say, My father, my father, why can’t you stay with us? O, my father, what are the men going to do with you? and if then he shall be thrust from thee by the sword, and thou be dragged to prison, and thine enemies prowl around thee like wolves for the blood of the lamb;

7 And if thou shouldst be cast into the pit, or into the hands of murderers, and the sentence of death passed upon thee; if thou be cast into the deep; if the billowing surge conspire against thee; if fierce winds become thine enemy; if the heavens gather blackness, and all the elements combine to hedge up the way; and above all, if the very jaws of hell shall gape open the mouth wide after thee, know thou, my son, that all these things shall give thee experience, and shall be for thy good. 

All of them. 

The Lord sees challenges as opportunities for growth, and to 'level up'. He does not want us to shy away from the difficult things that come before us, but to face them, learn from them, grow from them, and be better because of them.

Brothers and sisters, my little round friend Mark, as we walked around that track, was leveling up in that walk. And as we pick up the heaviest thing we can find, as we take responsibility for it, as we seek challenges to give us experience, the Lord has promised that those things will be for our good.

I leave that with you in the name of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, 



20 June 2022

David wasn't an underdog

In the story of David and Goliath, it is commonly read as David is an underdog, a young boy that faces off against a giant of a man, clearly outmatched, but overcomes.

This is the wrong interpretation of this story.

In 1 Samuel 17, the setting is laid out. The Philistines and Isrealites are gathered on opposite mountains overlooking the valley of Elah. Neither really wants to go down to the valley, and whichever tries to take the other in the mountains is looking at a slaughter from dug in forces in a higher position.. It was much like Normandy.

So Goliath, champion of the Philistines, went down to the valley to challenge the Isrealite champion to single combat to decide the battle.

4 ¶ And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span. - 1Sam17:4

10 And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together.

A cubit is the measure of the tip of your middle finger, commonly the longest finger, to the tip of your elbow. Common measurement is about 17-1/2". A Span is the measurement from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger, when extended, or about 9".

So a little math, Goliath was ((6*17.5)+9)/12 = 9.5' tall. That's a big guy.

Saul asked around, but his soldiers were too afraid to face him. For forty days he asked, but no one would come forward.

David was there bringing his brothers lunch on the 40th day. David was a shepherd, not a soldier.

15 But David went and returned from Saul to feed his father’s sheep at Beth-lehem.

16 And the Philistine drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days.

17 And Jesse said unto David his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched corn, and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to thy brethren;

24 And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him, and were sore afraid.

David heard Goliath issue his challenge, and he asked around to the soldiers, won't anybody go out and face him? And they told him, no. He'll kill us.

So David went to Saul and told him don't worry, I'll do it.

32 ¶ And David said to Saul, Let no man’s heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine.

Saul tried to give him armor, David wouldnt take it, he instead insisted that he be allowed to fight Goliath his own way.

David wasn't just a shepherd.. he was a skilled hunter (probably with a bit of boasting):

34 And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father’s sheep, and there came a lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock:

35 And I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of his mouth: and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, and smote him, and slew him.

36 Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God.

37 David said moreover, The Lord that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said unto David, Go, and the Lord be with thee.

He picked 5 stones from the ground.

40 And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd’s bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling was in his hand: and he drew near to the Philistine.

Now, the stones of this mountain are not just the normal granite-quartz stones you might find in the back yard, or in the field. These stones are of a Salt mineral called Barium-Sulfate, which is desired for both it's white appearance and it's high density. For comparison, it is equivalent to the density of Titanium, about 280lb/ft³ or 4500kg/m³.

David had his sling in hand. Probably less likely than grabbing a bear and lion by the beard, he killed it with his sling, which was why he was confident he could use it to take out Goliath. The slinger was an important part of the military.

An advantage of the slinger over the armor-clad swordsman or spearman was his effectiveness from a distance. It is claimed that their range of effectiveness was up to 400 feet (c. 122 meters) with stones, and even farther with lead pellets. - Watchtower OL

Lead has a density of 708lb/ft³, so two-and-a-half times that of Barium-Sulfate, for comparison.

Even still, common riverstone, like what is normally thought of, and usually made up of granite, limestone, or flint, is significantly lighter.

Density of:

Granite: 168lb/ft³
Flint: 163.69 lb/ft³
Limestone: 169lb/ft³
Common stone: 157lb/ft³

citation: https://www.aqua-calc.com/page/density-table/

Goliath was a foot soldier. He wore bronze armor and caried a sword. Goliath was literally bringing a knife to a gunfight.

So David walked down there, was mocked by Goliath, David loaded his sling and BANG! right between the eyes, dropped Goliath, picked up the giant's sword, and cut off his head to deliver to Saul as a trophy, taking the armor for his own trophy.

David wasn't the underdog, he was a skilled marksman with a deadly weapon. He knew his skill, and he knew God was with him.

Goliath is often, like the giants from my previous post, alegorically seen as a challenge we need to overcome.

But instead of seeing ourselves as the underdog, try looking at it this way: You are more equiped to handle the challenges that come your way than you might at first realize.

Further study:


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